The process of attaching braces to the teeth has changed significantly in the last 30 years. This is mainly due to the introduction of materials and methods that allow effective bonding of the braces directly to the enamel. As recently as 20 years ago, it was common for orthodontists to place bands, or rings, around each and every tooth. This provided an effective means of attachment, but tended to show quite a bit of metal.
The back sides of the braces have a mesh design. When glue is placed onto the bracket and against the tooth, the combination of cleaned and conditioned enamel and the mesh base of the bracket provide a very good attachment.
The placement of the braces and the bonding procedure as used today generally follows these steps:
The entire bonding procedure can take anywhere between 20-40 minutes. The length is primarily due to the time required to properly position the braces, and time required for the curing light. Recent advances in the curing lights have allowed use of LED lights, which narrow the wavelength of the light. This reduces the time needed to cure the glue. Older Halogen lights require about 15-20 seconds for each bracket, whereas an LED light would require only half of the time. Plasma lights require even less time (about 3 seconds per bracket).
Bonding braces is quite painless, although the length of time required for the procedure is perhaps a bit annoying. The cheek retractors, which are so essential to a successful bonding procedure, can stretch the cheeks and lips and make the whole mouth feel very dry when the bonding is completed. The lips and cheeks recover very quickly, however, and the dryness can be remedied with a rinse (which also helps to remove the bad taste).
A dry field is very important since the materials used for bonding require a clean enamel surface. Many of the primers and some types of glue are water tolerant (hydrophilic), but do not perform very well with saliva contamination. Proteins in saliva have a tendency to bind very quickly to the enamel surface and forms a layer know as a pellicle. The pellicle interferes with proper bonding. Consequently, the enamel surface needs to remain protected from the tongue, cheeks, and lips during the entire bonding procedure.
Sometimes the orthodontist may still need to place bands (rings) on the back molars. They can also provide additional attachments on the tongue side of the band, as well as attachment tubes for headgear and other appliances. If there are large fillings or crowns on the teeth, then bands are often needed.
An advantage of using molar bands includes an increased stability of attachment on a large tooth in a very highly active part of the mouth. They also provide additional attachments on the tongue side of the band, as well as attachment tubes for headgear and other appliances. The process of placing bands on the molars involves the following: